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It is a mosquito-borne disease that prevails in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Millions of dengue cases occur every year around the world. It is common in southeast Asia and is rapidly increasing around the Caribbean regions. It comes with a mild fever causing extreme fatigue and joint pain but in severe cases, the patients will have bleeding, drop in blood pressure, and could be fatal.

Researchers are working for Dengue vaccines, but as of now, it is better to control the mosquito habitat in the unsafe areas.


It is a member of flavivirus under the family Flaviviridae. It includes many other diseases transmitted by mosquito, like yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis. Dengue serotypes are closely interrelated type viruses namely,

  • DEN-1
  • DEN-2
  • DEN-3
  • DEN-4

Each type has a different means of interaction with human antibodies. But the symptoms are mostly same for all the above types. A person affected with one serotype becomes immune to all other types for a shorter period (two or three months) but on a longer-term, they may get the virus again.


It is caused by mosquitoes as it carries any one type of dengue virus. When an infected person is bitten by a mosquito, the virus enters its body. When this infected mosquito bites someone the virus enters into their bloodstream.

You will have an immune to the type of virus you got infected and prone to other types. In some cases like dengue hemorrhagic fever, if you are infected for a second time you would have high risk and could be fatal.

Symptoms of Dengue

Symptoms do not emerge soon as you affected. It takes 10-14 days to get the symptoms. In some cases, there would be mild fever and it gets along with other symptoms as the day passes. In dengue, you will be having a high-grade fever 104 F degrees and would have at least any two symptoms from the following.

  • Headache
  • Rashes
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Muscle cramps/ joint pain
  • Pain in eyes
  • Swollen glands

Dengue can be treated and people will recover in a few days. But in worst-case scenario symptoms thrives and cause damage to blood vessels. It makes blood vessels leaky and clots are formed, It is known as dengue hemorrhagic fever or a dengue shock syndrome and could be fatal.

Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever are

  • Bruises
  • Bleeding from gums and nose
  • Blood present in urine and stools
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Severe abdominal cramps
  • Difficulty in breathing

Risk factors

Risk factors that involve with dengue are traveling and the previous infection.

  • Traveling: Frequent traveling in the tropical and subtropical regions could risk you to the virus exposure. Higher risky areas are Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America
  • If you had previous infection then you are more likely to get another time. This time you will have severe symptoms and more complications could become trouble and sometimes be fatal.

Severe dengue can give you complications related to lungs, liver, and heart. In dengue hemorrhagic fever there would be a sudden drop in blood pressure causing a total shock in your body and could lead to death.


WHO suggests the vaccine approved for older children and adults is not an effective tool. It is important to control the mosquitoes in unsafe regions. If you are planning to travel or living in the dengue prone regions follow the tips,

  • Screen your windows properly
  • In night stay at air-conditioned rooms
  • Cover your body with proper clothes if you need to travel where more mosquitoes are there.
  • Clean or remove containers with standing water regularly
  • Reduce the breeding of mosquito by frequent spraying of disinfectant
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